Almost the entire Ortler Group fall within the boundaries of the Stelvio National Park. Although the mountain massif forms part of the Central Alps, it is sometimes also counted to the South-Eastern Alps as well as to the Rhaetian Alps. This is due to geographical reasons, as well as the geomorphological characteristics of these mountains. The geology of the mountains in the Stelvio National Park is comprised of two main rock groups. One is specific to the Central Alps and the other is related to the Southern Alps.

The mountains and glaciers in the Stelvio National Park have helped to shape its high Alpine landscape as well as the fertile side valleys. The constant evolution of the glaciers is the result of ongoing geological processes that have lasted for many millions of years.